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Lyme and Other Vector-borne Disease Information

Publications

MMC - Lyme Disease

Publications

  • Smith RP Jr., PW Rand and EH Lacombe. 1990. Potential for Lyme Disease in Maine: Deer survey of distribution of Ixodes dammini, the tick vector. Am J Public Health 80:333-335.
    This study first revealed that deer were hosting ticks in southern Maine.
  • Canine seroprevalenceRand PW, RP Smith, Jr., and EH Lacombe. 1991. Canine seroprevalence and the distribution of Ixodes dammini in an area of emerging Lyme disease. Am J Public Health 81:1331-1334.
    This study, involving 16 veterinary clinics statewide and over 800 dogs, demonstrated that the Lyme bacteria was being transmitted to dogs within twenty miles of the Maine coast along its entire length.
  • Smith, RP,Jr., EH Lacombe, PW Rand, and R Dearborn. 1992: Diversity of tick species biting humans in an emerging area for Lyme disease. Am J Public Health 82:66-69.
    Of 709 human biting ticks submitted from Maine in 1989 and 1990, 17% were I. scapularis/dammini, 34% were I. cookei, the woodchuck tick, and 45% were dog ticks, Dermacentor variabilis.
  • Lacombe, EH, PW Rand, and RP Smith, Jr. 1993. Disparity of Borrelia burgdorferi infection rates of adult Ixodes dammini on deer and vegetation. J Infect Dis 167:1236-1238.
    The infection rate in feeding adult ticks removed from deer was 13%, while the infection rate among questing adults at the same location was 47%. White-tailed deer reduce infection prevalence in feeding deer ticks.
  • Mouse in handRand, PW, EH Lacombe, RP Smith Jr., SM Rich, CW Kilpatrick, CA Dragoni, and D Caporale. 1993. Competence of Peromyscus maniculatus (Rodentia: Cricetidae) as a reservoir host for Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetares: Spirochaetaceae) in the wild. J Med Entomol 30: 614-618.
    This study demonstrated, on an island where they were the only species of mouse present, that deer mice were competent reservoir hosts for the bacteria that causes Lyme disease.
  • Caporale, DA, TD Kocher, RP Smith Jr., PW Rand, and EH Lacombe: 1993. OspB sequence variation of Borrelia burgdorferi along the coast of Maine. Proceedings of the 2nd European Symposium on Lyme Disease. Ann Rheum Dis 52:408.
    Using PCR and DNA sequencing, 7 unique OspB gene sequences were found among 5l isolates of B. burgdorferi from five sites along the Maine coast. Multiple strains of the bacteria were found at individual sites and within tissues from a single rat.
  • Norway RatSmith, RP Jr., PW Rand, EH Lacombe, SR Telford III, SM Rich, J Piesman, and A Spielman. 1993. Norway rats as reservoir hosts for Lyme disease spirochetes on Monhegan Island, Maine. J Infect Dis 168:687-691
    For the first time, it was shown that Norway rats are very competent reservoir hosts of the agent of Lyme disease.
  • Rand PW, EH Lacombe, RP Smith Jr, K. Gensheimer, and DT Dennis. 1996. Low seroprevalence of human Lyme disease near a focus of high entomolgic risk. Am J Trop Med Hyg 55:160-164.
    Within a 5km x 8km area, a strong correlation existed between deer sightings and canine Lyme seropositivity, which was 100% near the coast. Despite the high risk of exposure near the coast, only 2 of 272 persons were seropositive.
  • Yellow throat warblerSmith RP Jr, PW Rand, EH Lacombe, SR Morris, DW Holmes, and DA Caporale. 1996. Role of bird migration in the long-distance dispersal of Ixodes dammini, the vector of Lyme disease. J Infect Dis 174:221-224.
    From 1989 through 1994, 1.2% of 11,324 spring-migrating birds and 0.2% of 8607 fall-migrating birds, mist-netted on a small, isolated, offshore island where the tick is not established, were infested with Ixodes dammini. Twenty percent of nymphal ticks were infected.
  • Rand PW, EH Lacombe, RP Smith Jr., and J Ficker. 1998. Participation of birds (Aves) in the emergence of Lyme disease in southern Maine: J Med Entomol 35(3):270-276.
    Over 2600 larval and nymphal deer ticks were removed from 1713 of 1972 passerine birds during nesting seasons in south coastal Maine from 1989 through 1996. Twenty five of 64 species were infested, and certain of these species were reservoir competent while others were not.
  • Kierans, JE., and EH Lacombe. 1998. First records of Amblyomma americanum, Ixodes (Ixodes) dentatus, and Ixodes (Ceratixodes) uriae (Acari: Ixodidae) from Maine. J. Parasitol., 84(3): 629-631.
    The records of three ixodid tick species in the State of Maine are reported. Amblyomma americanum, common in States to the south, is a potential vector of a different Borrelia species and monocytic ehrlichiosis. In Scandinavia, Ixodes uriae, which is found on puffins and other seabirds, has been shown to carry the Lyme disease spirochete. This is the first report of I. uriae in eastern United States. Dr. J. E. Keirans is the curator of the U. S. National Tick Collection at Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA.
  • Lacombe, EH, PW Rand, and RP Smith Jr. 1999. Severe reaction in domestic animals following the bite of Ixodes muris (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks. J Med Entomol. 36(3):227-232.
    This paper reports 43 cases of severe pain and swelling accompanied by lethargy, anorexia and fever in 42 dogs and cats and 1 goat following the bite of this tick.
  • Dolan, MC, EH Lacombe, and J. Piesman. 2000. Vector Competence of Ixodes muris (Acari: Ixodidae) for Borrelia burgdorferi. J Med Entomol. 37(5):766-768.
    This paper discusses the vector competence of Ixodes muris for B. burgdorferi.
  • deer corn treated with an acaricide on Monhegan Island, MaineRand, PW, EH Lacombe, MS Holman, C Lubelczyk and RP Smith Jr. 2000. Attempt to control ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on deer on an isolated island using Ivermectin-treated corn. J Med Entomol 37(1):126-133.
    This paper describes a three-year effort to control ticks by feeding deer corn treated with an acaricide on Monhegan Island, Maine.
  • Erythema MigransSmith RP, RT Schoen, DW Rahn, VK Sikand, J Nowakowski DL Parenti, MS Holman, BA, DH Persing, and AC Steere. 2002. Clinical characteristics and treatment outcome of early Lyme disease in patients with microbiologically confirmed erythema migrans. Ann Intern Med. 136(6):421-428.
    This study was designed to describe the early signs and symptoms of Lyme disease. Researchers followed almost 11,000 people in a study to test a Lyme disease vaccine in 10 states where the disease frequently occurs. Of these, 118 had Lyme disease that was documented with special tests for infection. The patients had visited their physicians a few days after the appearance of a red rash. The rash usually had the same color throughout (59%) or was redder in the center (32%). Only 9% of the rashes had a clear area in the middle ("classic" Lyme disease rash). About 1/3 of the patents also reported flu-like symptoms such as muscle and joint pains and headache. Rashes and symptoms usually went away with antibiotic treatment.
  • Courtney T, S Sears, J Woytowicz, D Preston, R Smith, P Rand, E Lacombe, M Holman, et al. 2001. Outbreak of Powassan encephalitis in Maine and Vermont 1999-2001. MMWR 50(35):761-764.
    This paper reports on three cases of Powassan virus resulting in encephalitis,acquired in-state by Maine residents, in 2000 and 2001.
  • Deer densityRand, PW, C Lubelczyk, GR Lavigne, S Elias, MS Holman, EH Lacombe, and RP Smith. 2003. Deer density and abundance of Ixodes scapularis (Acari:Ixodidae). J Med Entomol 40(2): 179-184, 2003.
    This paper demonstrated the relationship between deer presence as measured by pellet group counts and adult deer tick abundance on study plots in southern Maine in 1998 -2000. Few ticks were collected at deer densities lower than <7/km2 (~15/mi2)
  • Goethert HK, C Lubelczyk, E Lacombe, M Holman, P Rand, RP Smith Jr, SR Telford III. 2003. Enzootic Babesia microti in Maine. J Parasitol 89: 1069-1071, 2003.
    The agent of human babesiosis exists in mammals in areas of coastal Maine where deer ticks are rare or non-existent. Two forms of B. microti were demonstrated by phylogenetic analysis.
  • MMCRI: Looking at a gelHolman MS, DA Caporale, J Goldberg, E Lacombe, C. Lubelczyk, PW Rand, and RP Smith Jr. 2004. Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia microti, and Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodes scapularis, southern coastal Maine. Emerg. Iinfect. Dis. 10(4):744-746.
    The agents of two other deer tick transmitted diseases, babesiosis and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, were discovered in Maine deer ticks, using polymerase chain reaction. Small numbers of ticks were shown to be co-infected.
  • Rand, PW, MS Holman, C Lubelcyzk, EL Lacombe, AT DeGaetano and RP Smith Jr. 2004. Thermal Accumulation and the early development of Ixodes scapularis. J Vector Ecol 29(1):164-176.
    Degree day data were collected in natural settings at sites throughout Maine as engorged female deer ticks developed and deposited eggs and those eggs hatched out larvae. Maps were constructed to demonstrate areas in the northeastern U.S. where temperatures were potentially sufficient for Ixodes scapularis larvae to be produced.
  • Rand PW, C Lubelczyk, MS Holman, EH Lacombe, and RP Smith Jr. 2004. Abundance of Ixodes scapularis (Acari:Ixodidae) after the complete removal of deer from an isolated offshore island, endemic for Lyme disease. J Med Entomol 41(4):779-784.
    This paper tracks the decline of an established population of deer ticks on Monhegan Island after the deer herd was completely removed in the late 1990s.
  • Study SiteLubelczyk C, S P Elias, PW Rand, MS Holman, EH Lacombe, and RP Smith, Jr. 2004. Habitat associations of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in Maine. Environ Entomol. 33: 900-906.
    In 1998-2000, at three sites in coastal Maine, deer ticks were found more often in study sites that had a shrub layer, deciduous leaf litter, forest grasses, moist-soil ferns and greater than 50% tree canopy closure than in study sites that lacked those features.
  • mosquitoHolman MS, RF Darsie Jr, and KA Foss. 2006. A checklist of the mosquitoes of Maine with new state records. J Am. Mosq Cont Assoc 22 (2): 327-329.
    This paper updated current species of mosquitoes found in Maine.
  • Smith RP. 2005. Current diagnosis and treatment of Lyme disease. Comp Ther. 31(4): 284-290.
    This paper reviews the presentation and treatment of human Lyme disease along with the role of serological testing in detection.
  • Barberry thicketElias S P, CB Lubelczyk, PW Rand, EH Lacombe, MS Holman, and RP Smith Jr. 2006. Deer browse resistant exotic-invasive understory: an indicator of elevated human risk of exposure to Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) in southern coastal Maine woodlands. J Med Entomol 43:1142-52, 2006.
    An association of habitat features with the abundance of ticks was made showing how landscape changes, including the invasion by exotic vegetation, might create favorable tick habitat. These findings could prove helpful in assessing local risk of exposure to this vector tick.
  • Smith RP Jr, S Bin Muzaffar, J Lavers, EH. Lacombe, BK Cahill, CB Lubelczyk, A Kinsler, AJ Mathers, and PW Rand. 2006. Borreliia garini in seabird ticks (Ixodes uriae), Atlantic Coast, North America. 2006. Emerging Infectious Diseases 12: 1909-12.
    This paper describes the first report of Borrelia garinii, a European strain of the agent of Lyme disease, in North America and discusses the potential public health implications of this finding.
  • Lubelczyk, C., T. Hanson, E. Lacombe, M. Holman, and J. Keirans. 2007.First United States record of the hard tick Ixodes (Pholeoixodes) gregsoni Lindquist, Wu, and Redner. J. of Parasitol. 93: 718-719.
    This study reports the first U.S. record of this tick species obtained from mustelids and domestic animals in Vermont and Maine.
  • Feder HM, Johnson BJB, O'Connell ZS, Shapiro ED, Steere AC, Wormser GP, and The Ad Hoc International Lyme Disease Group (incl. Smith, RP Jr.). 2007. A critical appraisal of "chronic Lyme disease". N. Engl. J. Med. 357:1422-1430.
  • Looking at ticks under miscroscopePW Rand, EH Lacombe, R Dearborn, BK Cahill, SP Elias, C Lubelczyk, GA Beckett and RP Smith Jr. 2007. Passive Surveillance in Maine, an Area Emergent for Tick-Borne Diseases. J. Med. Entomol. 44(6): 11118-1129.
    This paper summarizes data from 18 continuous years of tick submissions within the State of Maine.
  • Hinten SR, GA Beckett, KF Gensheimer, E Pritchard, TM Courtney, SD Sears, J M Woytowicz, DG Preston, RP Smith Jr, PW Rand, EH Lacombe, MS. Holman, CB Lubelczyk, P Tassler Kelso, AP Beelen, MG Stobierski, MJ Sotir, S Wong, G Ebel, O Kosoy, J Piesman, GL Campbell, and AA Marfin. 2008. Increased recognition of Powasan encephalitis in the United States, 1999-2005. Vector-borne and Zoonotic Diseases, 8:733-740.
    This paper reports on the first four cases of Powassan encephalitis in Maine.
  • Edillo F, A Kiszewski, J Manjourides, M Pagano, M Hutchinson, A Kyle, J Arias, D Gaines, R Lampman, R Novak, I Foppa, C Lubelczyk, R Smith, A Moncayo, A Spielman, and the Culex Pipiens Working Group. 2009.
    Effects of latitude and longitude on the population structure of Culex pipiens, vector of West Nile virus in North America. Am J Trop Med Hyg 81(5): 842-848.
  • Lubelczyk C, BK. Cahill, J Turmel, E Lacombe, PW Rand, SP. Elias, and RP Smith Jr. 2010. Tick (Acari:Ixodidae) infestation at two rural, seasonal camps in Maine and Vermont. 2010. J. Parasitology 96: 442-443.
    Ticks biting the owners of two camps after opening them in the summer were found to be I. cookei and I. marxi, potential vectors of Powassan virus.
  • high pressure sprayRand PW, EH Lacombe, SP Elias, CB Lubelczyk, T St. Amand, and RP Smith Jr. 2010. Trial of a minimal-risk botanical compound to control the vector tick of Lyme disease. J Med Entomol 47: 695-698.
    This study demonstrated that a botanical acaricide containing rosemary oil was nearly as effective in controlling nymphal and adult deer ticks as the more environmentally threatening synthetic product, bifenthrin
  • Rand PW, EH Lacombe, SP Elias, BK Cahill, CB Lubelczyk, and RP Smith Jr. 2011. Multitarget test for emerging Lyme disease and anaplasmosis in a survey of dogs, Maine, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases 17:899-902.  Over 1000 dogs from throughout Maine were tested for exposure to the agents of Lyme disease and anaplasmosis. Transmission of both disease agents was found throughout the southern half of the state. A few dogs in northernmost Maine were positive for Lyme. Exposure of dogs to anaplasmosis was very high in some south coastal communities.
  • Monhegan Island, MaineElias, SP, RP Smith Jr, SR Morris, PW Rand, and C Lubelczyk. 2011. Density of Ixodes scapularis ticks on Monhegan Island after complete deer removal: A question of avian importation? Journal of Vector Ecology 36:11-23
    This analysis demonstrates that the very few questing adult deer ticks that are found on Monhegan following removal of deer are what would be expected on the basis of bird importation alone.
  • Mathers A, RP Smith Jr, B Cahill, C Lubelczyk, SP Elias, E Lacombe, SR Morris, CP. Vary, CE Parent, and PW Rand. 2011. Strain diversity of Borrelia burgdorferi in ticks dispersed in North America by migratory birds. Journal of Vector Ecology 36: 24-29.
  • Gibney, KB., S Robinson, J-P Mutebi, DE Hoenig, BJ Bernier, L Webber, C Lubelczyk, RJ Nett, and MFischer. 2011. Eastern Equine Encephalitis: an emerging arboviral disease threat, Maine, 2009. Vector-borne and Zoonotic Disease 11: 637-639.
    This is a report of an outbreak of eastern equine encephalitis fatal to 15 horses, 1 llama and two pheasant flocks in central and southern Maine in 2009
  • Mutebi J-P, C Lubelczyk, R Eisen, N Panella, K MacMillan, M Godsey, B Swope, G Young, RP Smith Jr, L Kantar, S Robinson, and S Sears. 2011. Using wild, white-tailed deer to detect equine Eastern encephalitis virus activity in Maine. Vector-borne and Zoonotic Diseases 11: 1403-1409 Sampling blood from the carcasses of 226 hunter-killed deer from 10 Maine counties, researchers found 7.1% positive for antibodies to Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus, demonstrating the value of white-tailed deer as sentinels for EEE.
  • Swans Island, MaineMacQueen DM, C Lubelczyk, S. Elias, B.Cahill, A. Mathers, EH Lacombe, PW Rand, RP Smith Jr. 2012. Genotypic Diversity of an emergent population of Borrelia burgdorferi at a coastal island recently colonized by Ixodes scapularis. Journal of Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, 12: 456-461.    By examining their genetic makeup, this study recorded the gradual addition of multiple strains of the Lyme disease spirochete to a "founder" strain as both ticks and the pathogen became established on offshore Swans Island.
  • Smith RP. 2011. The vectors of Lyme disease (Chapter 1). In Lyme Disease: An Evidence Based Approach. (J. Halperin, ed.); CABI Press, Oxford
  • Muzzafar SB, RP Smith Jr, IL Jones, J. Lavers, EH Lacombe, BK Cahill, CB Lubelczyk, and PW Rand. 2012. The trans-Atlantic movement of the spirochete Borrelia garinii: the role of ticks and their seabird hosts. pp 23-30 in E. Paul (editor). Emerging Avian Disease. Studies in Avian Biology (Vol. 42), University of California Press, Berkely, CA.
  • Angel TE, JM Jacobs, RP Smith, MS Pasternack, S. Elias, MA Gritsenko, A. Shukla, EC Gilmore, C. McCarthy, DG Camp 2nd, RP Smith, Warren HS. 2012. Cerebrospinal fluid proteome of patients with acute Lyme disease. J. Proteome Res. doi:10.1021/pr300577p.
    This is an analysis of the entire set of proteins in the cerebral spinal fluid of patients with central nervous system Lyme disease.
  • HorsesLubelczyk C, J-P. Mutebi, S Robinson, SP Elias, LB Smith, S Juris, K Foss, A Lichtenwalner, KJ Shively, DE Hoenig, L Webber, S Sears, and RP. Smith Jr. 2013. An epizootic of eastern equine encephalitis virus, Maine, U.S.A. in 2009: outbreak description and entomological studies. Am J Trop Med Hyg 88:95-102, doi:10.4269/ajtmh.2012.11-0358
    This paper reports on an outbreak of eastern equine encephalitis in Maine in 2009 in which 15 horses, 1 llama and pheasants in three flocks died. The event represented a substantial expansion of the range of the virus in Northern New England. Results of a rapid response vector mosquito survey are discussed.
  • Elias SP, CB Lubelczyk, PW Rand, JK Staples, TW St. Amand, CS Stubbs, EH Lacombe, LB Smith and RP Smith Jr. 2013. Effect of a botanical acaricide on Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) and non-target arthropods. J Med Entomol 50:126-136.
    This study repeated and corroborated the tick-killing effectiveness of a rosemary oil-containing acaricide product in comparison with a standard synthetic compound, but further demonstrated the very transient effect the botanical had on non-target arthropods.
  • Nofchissey RA, ER Deardorff, TM Blevins, M Anishchenko, A Boscoe-Lauth, E. Berl, C Lubelczyk, J-P Mutebi, AC Brault, GD Ebel, and LA Magnarelli LA. 2013. Seroprevalence of Powassan virus in New England deer: 1979-2010. Am J Trop Med Hyg 88:1159-1162.
    In collaboration with the federal Center for Disease Control & Prevention, our staff organized and carried out the collection of blood samples from the carcasses of 326 hunter-killed deer at tagging stations throughout Maine
    which were tested for antibodies to Powassan virus. Approximately 12% of Maine deer demonstrated exposure to the virus.
  • Diakh BE, FE Emerson, RP Smith, FL Lucas. 2013. Lyme arthritis: A comparison of presentation, synovial fluid analysis, and treatment course in children and adults. Arthritis Care & Research 65: 1986-1990.
    This case series examines the differences in the presentation, management and outcome of Lyme arthritis between the pediatric and adult population.
  • MooseLubelczyk, C, SP Elias, L Kantar, J Albert, S Hansen, K Saxton-Shaw, K MacMillan, LB Smith, R Eisen, B Swope, RP Smith and J-P Mutebi. 2014. Detection of Eastern equine encephalitis virus antibodies in moose (Alces americana), Maine, 2010. Vector-borne and Zoonotic Diseases 14: 77-81
    Using similar methodology, blood samples were obtained from 146 moose at seven tagging station in three northern Maine counties, and tested for antibodies against eastern equine encephalitis virus by the federal CDC. Eleven percent of these samples were positive.

 

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